The Series : « Aspects of contemporary art criticism worldwide »
Whether they are articles published at the end of an AICA symposium or produced by Switch (on Paper) following an international call for papers, the texts in this dossier bear witness to the diversity, singularity and permanence of an art critic whose place remains more than ever necessary to grasp the issues at stake in the world, placing artists and culture at the heart of the debate. A partnership that materializes a community of spirit and the active support of Switch (on Paper) for art critics, whose status and future are the subject of in-depth reflection.
The Author : Lisa Paul Streitfeld
Dr. Lisa Streitfeld is a philosopher and art critic. She chronicled a gender-balanced collaborative continental philosophy Conversion in the European Graduate School Media Lab for her master’s thesis (Hermeneutics of New Modernism, Dresden; New Yor... [ read more ]
Malegaze is a concept proposed by the film critic, director and feminist, Laura Mulvey, from the observation of Hollywood cinema, heterogeneous and gendered, in these modes of representation and identiﬁcation by the spectator (constructed to suit the normative male desire). Narrative and action are carried by male roles. Women occupy secondary places in a heterosexual division of labor. They become objects of voyeurism, sadism, or are subjected to a treatment of overvaluing the feminine cult.
Visibility / Invisibility
Direct or indirect discrimination that ignores, ridicules or renders inaccessible the claims and artistic and intellectual output produced by minorities (sexual, gender), in the public space or discourse, which is heteronormative and structured by relations of domination.
Gender fluid is the gender identity of people who do not recognize themselves in the traditional binary conception of gender (male-female) and refuse its exclusive assignment, allowing her/him to feel sometimes rather a man, sometimes rather a woman, sometimes androgynous or gynartic (designates a woman with masculine gender characteristics), sometimes neutral, etc., in a dynamic of fluidity and variations of possibilities.
Gender binarity refers to the traditional, restrictive and invariable conception that only the masculine and feminine genders exist and distinguish individuals.
Intersex individuals are those whose assignment of sexual characteristics at birth (genital, gonadal or chromosomal) does not correspond to the traditional binary conception of male and female bodies.
Sex assignment is the act of determining a child’s gender based on biological sex. It denies the self-determination and gender perception of the individual on the assumption that he or she is and will be in alignment with his or her assigned gender/sex, in a binary and cisnormative notion that excludes in particular the identity and experience of people who escape these gender norms (transidentity) and/or sex norms (intersex). It also perpetuates the common confusion between assigned sex, assigned gender and perceived gender.
In ancient Mesopotamia, Tammuz (in Babylonian), also called Dumuzi, Dumuzid (in Sumerian) is a god of abundance whose first written traces appear in the third millennium BC.
Regarded as a symbol of woman, an astral deity associated with the planet Venus, goddess of love and war, a sovereign deity whose support is necessary to reign over a kingdom, Ishtar (sometimes Eshtar) is a Mesopotamian goddess of Semitic origin (a group of languages spoken from ancient times in the Middle East, North Africa and the Horn of Africa). She corresponds to the goddess of the Sumerian mythology Inanna with whom she is confused, the same goddess being obviously behind these two names.
Today called Warka, Uruk (or Ourouk) is a major city in ancient Mesopotamia, in southern Iraq, considered to be the oldest settlement to have reached the urban stage in the second half of the fourth millennium BC, and it is likely that the writing was developed there at the same time. It was also an important political and religious center thanks to the influence of its two tutelary deities, the Sky God Anu, and especially the goddess Inanna/Ishtar.
Publishing Partnership with AICA International
This text by Lisa Paul Streitfeld is published in partnership with AICA following an international call for participation launched at the end of 2019. Out of some sixty proposals for articles, fourteen have been selected and will be published from 28 August as part of Manifesta 13 Marseille within the programme « Les Parallèles du Sud ».
AICA (International Association of Art Critics) is an NGO founded in 1950 under UNESCO patronage for the purpose of reinforcing worldwide freedom of speech in the area of art criticism and ensure its diversity. Its missions include promoting the discipline in the visual arts by contributing to ensuring sound methodological foundations, protecting the moral and professional interests of art critics by defending the rights of all members equally, ensuring permanent communication among all members by encouraging national and international meetings, improving and facilitating information and international exchanges in the visual arts and contributing to reciprocal knowledge and closer understanding between differing cultures.
Associate publisher, the Emerige Endowment Fund
Emerige: a proactive patron of the arts
In the firm belief that art has the power to change our daily reality, Emerige is a corporate sponsor committed to contemporary creativity by bringing culture closer to everyone, but especially the youngest in society. The Emerige Endowment Fund encourages young French artists via its Emerige Revelations Grant Scheme and its support for arts and culture educational programmes.
As a company devoted to building more beautiful cities for everyone, Emerige also contributes to bringing more art into urban communities by acquiring or commissioning contemporary art pieces under the terms of the 1 Building, 1 Artwork charter.
Parallèles du Sud, Manifesta 13 Marseille
This series of publications published in partnership with AICA International (International Association of Art Critics) is one of the 86 projects labeled “Les Parallèles du Sud”, as part of MANIFESTA 13, which will take place in Marseille from 28 August to 29 November 2020.
Manifesta is the European Nomadic Biennial, which originated in the early 1990s in response to the political, economic, and social change following the end of the Cold War and the subsequent steps towards European integration. Manifesta has developed into a platform for dialogue between art and society by inviting the cultural and artistic community to produce new creative experiences with, and for, the context in which it takes place. Manifesta rethinks the relations between culture and society investigating and catalysing positive social change in Europe through contemporary culture in a continuous dialogue with the social sphere of a specific place.
Manifesta was founded by the Dutch art historian, Hedwig Fijen. Each new edition is fundraised individually and managed by a mix of permanent international team and local specialists. Manifesta is working from its offices in Amsterdam and Marseille.